Self-Sufficient- The facility may be able to be entirely
self-sufficient and deliver extra power to the grid. Federal law requires that your
utility company purchase power provided by you at a market rate, so economic incentives
can be substantial.
Renewable Fuels- Computer modeling is often used to help
determine the potential design, operation, and cost of solar-powered systems. If
renewable fuel sources are not currently feasible, try to make allowances at the time of
construction for their potential use in the future.
Fossil Fuels- Since fossil fuels are readily available and
inexpensive in the U.S., heating and cooling systems are typically overused and
oversized. Avoid using fossil fuels that require a high amount of embodied energy
and create a potential environmental desecration through mining, refining, and
Cooling Systems- Good passive design, insulation, and appropriate
system sizing will result in the most efficient systems. Buildings that are earth
sheltered, if only in part, gain the benefit of a fairly consistent exterior temperature,
which helps maintain a regulated indoor temperature naturally. Reducing undesirable
heat gain can save half to three-fourths of the amount of cooling that would be otherwise
required. Automated controls and timers can save energy by reducing and increasing
cooling during times that a space is unoccupied. When mechanical cooling is
necessary, try to specify a system that has no ozone depleting chemicals such as CFC or
HVAC Intake & Exhaust- Be sure not to locate the intake near
any parking areas or where machinery may be running in order to avoid pollutants in the
building. The air exhaust should be located on the negative pressure side of the
building to reduce the energy load on blower fans.
Personal Environment Modules- By using slide controls located on
a panel at their workspace, occupants can individually control temperature and airflow
within their own spaces through vents and radiant heaters, which are built into the
workstations. A motion sensor turns off the system within the space if the occupant
leaves, and turns it on again when the occupant returns.
Renewable Fuels- DOE-2 Computer Modeling, Mechanical Engineers
Case Studies to Research:
Harmony, a Center for the Study of Sustainable Resort Development, St. John, Virgin
(a rainwater cistern under its structure to collect and store water)
National Audubon Society, New York Headquarters - Gas-fired heating system
Center for Energy and Environmental Education, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls,
Wells Woodburn ONeil
Levy /Kaminstein House and Studio, Islamorada, FL.
Jersey Devil Architect
-Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Production Facility, Fairfield, CA.
Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects
-Spring Lake Park Visitors Center, Santa Rosa, CA.
Obie G. Bowman, Architect
-The Queens Building, School of Engineering and Manufacturing, De Monfort University
Short Ford and Associates, Architect
Personal Environment Modules- West Bend Mutual Insurance Company,
West Bend, Wisconsin
Herman Miller- Miller SQA Facility
William McDonough + Partners
Green Gothic Davies, Colin. Architecture. Vol.84, no.7, July 1995,
Campus Energy Barreneche, Raul A. Architecture. Vol.84, no.7, July 1995,
Sea Breeze Landecker, Heidi. Architecture. Vol.83, no.6, June 1993, pp.58-61.
Power Plant Moffat, David. Architecture. Vol.83, no.6, June 1993, pp.74-81.
Pyramid of the Sun Henderson, Justin. Architecture. Vol.83, no.6, June 1993,
Moore, F. Environmental Control Systems: Heating, Lighting, Cooling. New
York: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1993.
The Ecology of Architecture: A Complete Guide to Creating the Environmentally
Conscious Building by Laura Zeiher.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerator, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Environmental Resource Guide
National Audubon Society Audubon House: Building the Environmentally Responsible,
Energy-Efficient Office. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1994
Center for Resourceful Building Technology. Guide to Resource Efficient Building
Elements. PO Box 3866, Missoula, MT 59806.
U.S. Department of Energy: EPIC - Pollution
Prevention Information Clearinghouse